Sunday, December 8, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Business Intelligence and Analytics and Investigating. Answer: Introduction: This paper mainly concentrates on the public hospitals who had disclosed their reports regarding their operations in the emergency departments to the NNAPEDCD and it is seen that they report their overall activity of 2015-16 with respect to over time and that includes: The type and the number of public hospitals that have given out emergency department care The total number of presentations to the emergency departments of public hospitals. It is seen that the data set only considers the emergency department care in public hospitals that are situated in New South Wales. The NNAPEDCD gives out information on the provided care that are inclusive of the waiting time for the care for the patients who are non-admitted and have been registered in the emergency departments in the public hospitals where the departments try to acquire the following criteria: Intentionally constructed and equipped regions with delegated evaluation, recovery areas and treatment. Capability to give out recoveries, basic management and stabilisation of all the available emergencies The availability of the medical employees in the hospital for 24 hours a day Delegated nursing staff in the emergency department 24 hours a day and 7 days a week and a delegated emergency department that has a unit manager for handling nurses. The interpretation of the changes over time has revealed that the total number of hospitals has increased from 203 in 2011-12 to 287 in the year 2015-16. It is seen that women and children hospitals has remained 39 even though a value increased in the last year. The public acute group A hospitals has remained the same and the value has stayed to 60 for the five years, Public acute group B hospitals have remained the same as well the total number accounts to 45. The number of public acute group C hospitals was 38 in the year 2011-12 and the value has risen to 55 in the year 2015-16. The number of other hospitals has increased significantly and the value rises to 88. With respect to the state wise evaluation of the hospitals with respect to the emergency departments in the public hospitals, it is seen that the highest number of hospitals with emergency departments is seen in New South Wales and the number has increased significantly to 177 in 2015-16 from 95 in 2011-12. The other states that are in consideration have very few hospitals with respect to NSW. The sub division of various types of hospitals in New South Wales has revealed that out of the 177 hospitals other hospitals are 87, while group C hospitals account for 38 and group A accounts for 22. Group B hospitals are found to be 17 and women and child hospitals are seen to be 13. The total number of hospitals is very high with respect to the other states and territories. It is seen that with respect to the presentation of the emergency departments in the states and the territories, it is seen that in New South Wales, it is seen that the total number of presentations in the year 2011-12 has been 2,235,455 and it is seen that the total number of presentations has increased to 2,733,520, which has increased significantly in the year 2015-16. It is seen that the overall presentation all over the country has even risen from 6547342 in 2011-12 to 7465869 in the year 2015-16. Now, the segmentation of the total number of presentations with respect to the various types of hospitals are being discussed and it is seen that in case of New South Wales in the year 2015-16, it is seen that highest number of presentations are seen to be given by the group A hospitals followed by the women and children hospitals. It is seen that it is essential for the women and children hospitals to increase their presentation so that awareness can be spread among the society. The lowest number of presentations is given out by other hospitals irrespective of the group A, group B and group C hospitals. People who use emergency department services It is seen that with respect to the various age groups who have been taking the services, it is seen that in New South Wales the highest number of patients in the male population arise from the age group of 15-24 years. The next age group that makes use of the emergency department includes the age group of 0-4 years. The rate of patients in this age group has been found to be 174611. It is generally seen that most of the emergency patients have been within the age group of 0-4, 15-24 and 25-34 years. The rate of visit for the 15-24 years age group has been high but has been lower than above discussed age groups. With respect to the female age group, it is seen that the highest visitor has been higher in the age group of 15-24 years and the next age group has been found to be the age group of 25-34 years. It is even seen that in both the cases of male and female the teenagers has been found to be the most visitors of the emergency department. The next data will discuss about the presentation of the emergency departments by the indigenous states and territories and it is seen that most of the presentations are done in New South Wales and the other Australians contribute the highest. The other Australians comprise of the people for which indigenous reports were not recorded. The data with respect to the remoteness area of the usual residence has revealed that major cities are the regions from where most of the individuals visit the emergency department and urgent patients has been observed to be the highest in this respect. The semi-urgent patients have been found to be next after the urgent patients. The analysis of this data has revealed that the access of the individuals living outside the major cities has been found to be relatively low and therefore their accessibility to the emergency department has been low. It can even be said that the hospitals outside the major cities have lower level of emergency care departments. How and why were the services accessed? The evaluation of this statement has revealed that the type of visit, the importance or then urgency of the care, the process of arrival, the diagnosis principal and the end status of the patients. With respect to the type of visit that are seen in the emergency department in New South Wales, it is seen that emergency presentation has been the highest in the concerned state. The planned visit has been found to be the next highest level of the patients. It is seen that most of the emergency patients hail from the state of New South Wales. The urgency of the care and the mode with which the patients arrived at the emergency department has revealed that revival patients in New South Wales mainly arrive with the help of air ambulance, rescue helicopter services and ambulance. In case of emergency patients, any other mode other than the pre-discussed mode of transpiration is used. With respect to the urgent people, it is seen that ambulance and other mode of transport is mainly used by the patients to arrive at the emergency care. The scenario is same in case of the semi-urgent patients as it is seen that the other mode of payment and the use of use of air ambulance, ambulance and rescue helicopters are mainly utilised. The case is the sake for the non-urgent and the all category patients and therefore, the analysis of the collected data reveals that any kind of patient who arrive at the emergency care department mostly make use of the air ambulance or the ambulance or makes use of other mode of transportation. The next data is in respect to the time during which the people got admitted to the emergency department and it is seen that the frequency level is higher during the time span of 10 am to 8 pm. The frequency level has ranged from 12.9 to 11. This reveals that the level of admittance in the emergency department has been higher during the day time than at night. The next database discusses about the reason why the patients receive care in the emergency department and it is seen that with respect to New South Wales, a higher percentage of the patients were came to the emergency care with certain injuries that are external in nature like the poisoning and injuries due to accidents and mishaps. It is seen that symptoms of clinical and laboratory findings has been second in line with respect to the admittance in the emergency care department. It is seen that patients with respiratory problems have been found to be next line. It can therefore be said that a higher percentage of the patients get are admitted in the emergency care department due to external accidents and therefore it is important for the public hospitals to maintain the amenities that will be helpful for curing the patients who are affected by external injuries. There are various diseases that individuals face and thus it is seen that the emergency care department requires to maint ain every sort of medical equipment so that they can handle various kinds of patients. The next data reveals the twenty common principal diagnoses that is done by the emergency department and it is seen that with respect to New South Wales, it is seen that pelvic and abdominal pain has been found to be most. The other principal diagnoses have been found to be chest and throat pain. It can therefore be said that in New South Wales, most of the patients are have abdominal problems or throat or chest related problems. With respect to the main diagnostic block patient, it is seen that single site injury patients have been deemed to be the highest in New South Wales. There are various other diagnostic block patients who have visited the emergency care but after the single injury care, it is seen that digestive illness has been found to be the next bit diagnostic blockage system. The next set of data explains about the presentation by episode and the end status of the patients and it is seen that in New South Wales patients who have been departed without being referred and admitted is the highest and followed by the patients who had been admitted in the hospital. The analysis of the whole data set reveals that New South Wales have observed the highest number of patients who have been admitted in the emergency care department of public hospitals. Data Recommendation The analysis of the data that has been obtained with respect to the patients getting admitted in the emergency care department in New South Wales has revealed that this state with respect to the other states have the highest number of patients who have been admitted in the emergency care department. The data with respect to the non-admitted patients in the emergency care department has disclosed that most of the patients are facing abdominal, throat and chest pains and the external injuries has been higher. It is even seen that proportion of the percentage of waiting time has increased with respect to the rise in the degree of patients in New South Wales. It is even observed that much better results can be obtained by taking help of the primary data that could be useful for the giving out more precise and accurate results with respect to the transforming time and with respect to the changes in the taste and preferences in the economy. It is even requested that one needs to make use of my ideology in a proper way and undertake various kinds of functional activities that can improve the condition of the business. The undertaking of a developed data is not developing the process of the management accounting of the firm but is actually motivating the upcoming employees who try to give out the precise answer. Bibliography Bismark, M.M., Spittal, M.J., Gurrin, L.C., Ward, M. and Studdert, D.M., 2013. Identification of doctors at risk of recurrent complaints: a national study of healthcare complaints in Australia.BMJ quality safety, pp.bmjqs-2012. Brunetto, Y., Xerri, M., Shriberg, A., Farr?Wharton, R., Shacklock, K., Newman, S. and Dienger, J., 2013. The impact of workplace relationships on engagement, well?being, commitment and turnover for nurses in Australia and the USA.Journal of Advanced Nursing,69(12), pp.2786-2799. Farrell, E.H., Whistance, R.N., Phillips, K., Morgan, B., Savage, K., Lewis, V., Kelly, M., Blazeby, J.M., Kinnersley, P. and Edwards, A., 2014. Systematic review and meta-analysis of audio-visual information aids for informed consent for invasive healthcare procedures in clinical practice.Patient education and counseling,94(1), pp.20-32. Friedlander, R.R. and Khan, A.M., International Business Machines Corporation, 2016.Associating records in healthcare databases with individuals. U.S. Patent 9,230,060. Gibson, O., Lisy, K., Davy, C., Aromataris, E., Kite, E., Lockwood, C., Riitano, D., McBride, K. and Brown, A., 2015. Enablers and barriers to the implementation of primary health care interventions for Indigenous people with chronic diseases: a systematic review.Implementation Science,10(1), p.71. Gibson, P.R., Vaizey, C., Black, C.M., Nicholls, R., Weston, A.R., Bampton, P., Sparrow, M., Lawrance, I.C., Selby, W.S., Andrews, J.M. and Walsh, A.J., 2014. Relationship between disease severity and quality of life and assessment of health care utilization and cost for ulcerative colitis in Australia: a cross-sectional, observational study.Journal of Crohn's and Colitis,8(7), pp.598-606. Hawley, G., Jackson, C., Hepworth, J. and Wilkinson, S.A., 2014. Sharing of clinical data in a maternity setting: How do paper hand-held records and electronic health records compare for completeness?.BMC health services research,14(1), p.650. He, M., Miyajima, F., Roberts, P., Ellison, L., Pickard, D.J., Martin, M.J., Connor, T.R., Harris, S.R., Fairley, D., Bamford, K.B. and D'Arc, S., 2013. Emergence and global spread of epidemic healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile.Nature genetics,45(1), pp.109-113. Kaukonen, K.M., Bailey, M., Suzuki, S., Pilcher, D. and Bellomo, R., 2014. Mortality related to severe sepsis and septic shock among critically ill patients in Australia and New Zealand, 2000-2012.Jama,311(13), pp.1308-1316. Mitchell, B.G., Collignon, P.J., McCann, R., Wilkinson, I.J. and Wells, A., 2014. A major reduction in hospital-onset Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in Australia12 years of progress: an observational study.Clinical Infectious Diseases,59(7), pp.969-975. Mitchell, I., Schuster, A., Smith, K., Pronovost, P. and Wu, A., 2015. Patient safety reporting: a qualitative study of thoughts and perceptions of experts 15 years after To Err is Human.BMJ Qual Saf, pp.bmjqs-2015. Moore, S.P., Green, A.C., Bray, F., Garvey, G., Coory, M., Martin, J. and Valery, P.C., 2014. Survival disparities in Australia: an analysis of patterns of care and comorbidities among indigenous and non-indigenous cancer patients.BMC cancer,14(1), p.517. Peiris, D., Usherwood, T., Panaretto, K., Harris, M., Hunt, J., Redfern, J., Zwar, N., Colagiuri, S., Hayman, N., Lo, S. and Patel, B., 2015. Effect of a computer-guided, quality improvement program for cardiovascular disease risk management in primary health care.Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes,8(1), pp.87-95. Rose, P.W., Rubin, G., Perera-Salazar, R., Almberg, S.S., Barisic, A., Dawes, M., Grunfeld, E., Hart, N., Neal, R.D., Pirotta, M. and Sisler, J., 2015. Explaining variation in cancer survival between 11 jurisdictions in the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership: a primary care vignette survey.BMJ open,5(5), p.e007212. Schadewaldt, V., McInnes, E., Hiller, J.E. and Gardner, A., 2014. Investigating characteristics of collaboration between nurse practitioners and medical practitioners in primary healthcare: a mixed methods multiple case study protocol.Journal of advanced nursing,70(5), pp.1184-1193. Woolhouse, H., Gartland, D., Mensah, F. and Brown, S.J., 2015. Maternal depression from early pregnancy to 4 years postpartum in a prospective pregnancy cohort study: implications for primary health care.BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics Gynaecology,122(3), pp.312-321.
Sunday, December 1, 2019
US Government The framers of the Constitution had a vision for a new nation, and a new government to regulate it. They saw the conditions in which England existed under the monarchy, and decided to construct a different kind of government in which no one faction could hold too much power. Thus, they developed a system of checks and balances to prevent any one of the three separate branches of the government from becoming dominant. Today, the three branches still remain intact, and no single branch has enough power to completely nullify the decisions and rulings of the other two. However, even though the Executive, Judicial, and Legislative branches are fundamentally comparable in their command of the nation, today the Legislative branch exercises the greatest extent of power. Each of the three branches serves a different function. The Legislative branch, which consists of Congress, makes laws for the nation to follow. Congress also creates federal programs and agencies, and appropriates funds to carry them out. The Executive branch, composed of the President and Vice President, most accurately carries out the laws of the nation. This branch is responsible for appointing Supreme Court Justices and other federal judges. The Judicial Branch is made up of the Supreme Court and other federal courts, and is responsible for interpreting the laws passed by Congress. This branch is endowed with the power to declare laws and other executive actions unconstitutional. The Legislative branch has the upper-hand from the beginning of the process, due to the fact that Congress develops and passes laws initially. Congress does not have free reign to pass any laws it pleases, however, because the President has the power to veto a Congressional bill before it becomes a law. Many presidents have used their veto power to prevent the passage of bills which they did not like, whether for moral reasons or for personal convictions. One example of a president using this power was during the presidency of Andrew Jackson. Jackson vetoed a record twelve acts of Congress during his presidency, at the same time setting an example which other presidents would follow. The veto is where a large part of the President's power lies. However, even if the President vetoes a bill initially, that does not mean the bill cannot become a law. This is because Congress has the power to override a veto with a two- thirds majority vote. A good example of this occurred in 1973, when Congress passed the War Powers Act over a presidential veto. This act placed limitations on the President's ability to use military force. Another important power of the Legislative branch is Congress's ability to impeach the president, and possibly have him removed from office. A famous example of this power was the resignation of President Richard Nixon in 1973. Nixon resigned to avoid almost certain impeachment by Congress, concerning his involvement in the Watergate scandal. A more recent example was the 1998 impeachment of President William Jefferson Clinton. President Clinton endured the impeachment proceedings and Congress voted not to remove him from office. The Judicial branch's power lies within its ability to declare laws and executive decisions unconstitutional. This power allows the federal court system to nullify certain decisions made by the other two branches. However, it is clear that the Judicial branch does not exercise the greatest extent of power due to the fact that it is not directly involved in the creation and passing of laws. It can only deal with them if a situation arises after they have already been set in motion by the Executive and Legislative branches. Individual judges within the Judicial branch may appear to be above the law in many ways, in that they are appointed for life and are above executive control. However, this is not the case. Congress has the ability to impeach federal judges just as it can impeach a President. In fact, fifteen federal judges have been impeached by Congress up to date. Also, the very structure of the federal court system makes it extremely difficult for the Judicial branch to enforce its decisions in many cases. It has no armed forces or police at its disposal, so Judicial decisions are sometimes simply ignored. For example, school systems throughout the country remained segregated long after the courts had ruled segregation to be unconstitutional. In closing, it can clearly be seen that while the three branches of the United States government are essential equal in power, the Legislative branch has the ability to use the powers it has most effectively. Congress gives birth
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Facts and History of North Korea The Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, commonly known as North Korea, is one of the most talked-about yet least understood nations on Earth. It is a reclusive country, cut off even from its nearest neighbors by ideological differences and the paranoia of its top leadership. It developedÃ nuclear weaponsÃ in 2006. Severed from the southern half of the peninsula more than six decades ago, North Korea has evolved into a strange Stalinist state. The ruling Kim family exercises control through fear and personality cults. Can the two halves of Korea ever be put back together again? Only time will tell. Capital and Major Cities Capital: Pyongyang, population 3,255,000Hamhung, population 769,000Chongjin, population 668,000Nampo, population 367,000Wonsan, population 363,000 North Koreas Government North Korea, or the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, is a highly centralized communist country under the leadership of Kim Jong-Un. His official title is Chairman of the National Defense Commission. The President of the Supreme Peoples Assembly Presidium is Kim Yong Nam. The 687-seat Supreme Peoples Assembly is the legislative branch. All members belong to the Korean Workers Party. The judicial branch consists of a Central Court, as well as provincial, county, city and military courts. All citizens are free to vote for the Korean Workers Party at the age of 17. The Population of North Korea North Korea has an estimated 24 million citizens as of the 2011 census. About 63% of North Koreans live in urban centers. Nearly all of the population is ethnically Korean, with very small minorities of ethnic Chinese and Japanese. Language The official language of North Korea is Korean. Written Korean has its own alphabet, called Hangul. Over the past several decades, the government of North Korea has attempted to purge borrowed vocabulary from the lexicon. Meanwhile, South Koreans have adopted words such as PC for personal computer, handufone for mobile phone, etc. While the northern and southern dialects are still mutually intelligible, they are diverging from one another after 60 years of separation. Religion in North Korea As a communist nation, North Korea is officially non-religious. Prior to the partition of Korea, however, Koreans in the north were Buddhist, Shamanist, Cheondogyo, Christian, and Confucianist. To what extent these belief systems persist today is difficult to judge from outside the country. North Korean Geography North Korea occupies the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. It shares a long north-western border with China, a short border with Russia, and a highly-fortified border with South Korea (the DMZ or demilitarized zone). The country covers an area of 120,538 km sq. North Korea is a mountainous land; about 80% of the country is made up of steep mountains and narrow valleys. The remainder is arable plains, but these are small in size and distributed across the country. The highest point is Baektusan, at 2,744 meters. The lowest point is sea level. The Climate of North Korea North Koreas climate is influenced both by the monsoon cycle and by continental air masses from Siberia. Thus, it was extremely cold with dry winters and hot, rainy summers. North Korea suffers from frequent droughts and massive summer flooding, as well as the occasional typhoon. Economy North Koreas GDP (PPP) for 2014 is estimated at $40 billion US. The GDP (official exchange rate) is $28 billion (2013 estimate). The per capita GDP is $1,800. Official exports include military products, minerals, clothing, wood products, vegetables, and metals. Suspected unofficial exports include missiles, narcotics, and trafficked persons. North Korea imports minerals, petroleum, machinery, food, chemicals, and plastics. History of North Korea When Japan lost World War II in 1945, it also lost Korea, annexed to the Japanese Empire in 1910. The U.N. divided administration of the peninsula between two of the victorious Allied powers. Above the 38th parallel, the USSR took control, while the US moved in to administer the southern half. The USSR fostered a pro-Soviet communist government based in Pyongyang, then withdrew in 1948. North Koreas military leader, Kim Il-sung, wanted to invade South Korea at that point and unite the country under a communist banner, but Joseph Stalin refused to support the idea. By 1950, the regional situation had changed. Chinas civil war had ended with a victory for Mao Zedongs Red Army, and Mao agreed to send military support to North Korea if it invaded the capitalist South. The Soviets gave Kim Il-sung a green light for invasion. The Korean War On June 25, 1950, North Korea launched a ferocious artillery barrage across the border into South Korea, followed hours later by some 230,000 troops. The North Koreans quickly took the southern capital at Seoul and began to push southwards. Two days after the war began, US President Truman ordered American armed forces to come to the aid of the South Korean military. The U.N. Security Council approved member-state assistance to the South over the objection of the Soviet representative; in the end, twelve more nations joined the US and South Korea in the U.N. coalition. Despite this aid to the South, the war went very well for the North at first. In fact, the communist forces captured nearly the entire peninsula within the first two months of fighting; by August, the defenders were hemmed in at the city of Busan, on the southeastern tip of South Korea. The North Korean army was not able to break through the Busan Perimeter, however, even after a solid month of battle. Slowly, the tide began to turn against the North. In September and October of 1950, South Korean and U.N. forces pushed the North Koreans all of the way back across the 38th Parallel, and north to the Chinese border. This was too much for Mao, who ordered his troops into battle on North Koreas side. After three years of bitter fighting, and some 4 million soldiers and civilians killed, the Korean War ended in a stalemate with the July 27, 1953, cease-fire agreement. The two sides have never signed a peace treaty; they remain separated by a 2.5-mile wide demilitarized zone (DMZ). The Post-War North After the war, North Koreas government focused on industrialization as it rebuilt the battle-torn country. As president, Kim Il-sung preached the idea of Juche, or self-reliance. North Korea would become strong by producing all of its own food, technology, and domestic needs, rather than importing goods from abroad. During the 1960s, North Korea was caught in the middle of the Sino-Soviet split. Although Kim Il-sung hoped to remain neutral and play the two larger powers off of one another, the Soviets concluded that he favored the Chinese. They cut off help to North Korea. During the 1970s, North Koreas economy began to fail. It has no oil reserves, and the spiking price of oil left it massively in debt. North Korea defaulted on its debt in 1980. Kim Il-sung died in 1994 and was succeeded by his son Kim Jong-il. Between 1996 and 1999, the country suffered from a famine that killed between 600,000 and 900,000 people. Today, North Korea relied on international food aid through 2009, even as it poured scarce resources into the military. The agricultural output has improved since 2009 but malnutrition and poor living conditions continue. North Korea evidently tested its first nuclear weapon on October 9, 2006. It continues to develop its nuclear arsenal and conducted tests in 2013 and 2016.Ã On December 17, 2011, Kim Jong-il died and was succeeded by his third son, Kim Jong-un.
Friday, November 22, 2019
Walter Gropius, Short Profile of the Bauhaus Designer German architect Walter Gropius (born May 18, 1883, in Berlin) helped launch modern architecture in the 20th century when he was asked by the German government to run a new school, the Bauhaus in Weimar in 1919. As an art educator, Gropius soon defined the Bauhaus school of design with his 1923 Idee und Aufbau des staatlichen Bauhauses Weimar (Idea and Structure of the Weimar State Bauhaus), which continues to influence architecture and the applied arts. The vision of the Bauhaus school has permeated world architecture- wildly influential writes Charly Wilder for The New York Times. She says itÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult today to find some corner of design, architecture or the arts that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t bear its traces. The tubular chair, the glass-and-steel office tower, the clean uniformity of contemporary graphic design- so much of what we associate with the word modernism- has roots in a small German art school that existed for only 14 years. Bauhaus Roots, Deutsche Werkbund Walter Adolph Gropius was educated at the Technical Universities in MÃ ¼nich and Berlin. Early on, Gropius experimented with the combination of technology and art, building walls with glass blocks, and creating interiors without visible supports. His architectural reputation was first established when, while working with Adolph Meyer, he designed the Fagus Works in Alfred an der Leine, Germany (1910-1911) and a model factory and office building for the first Werkbund Exhibition in Cologne (1914). The Deutsche Werkbund or German Work Federation was a state-sponsored organization of industrialists, artists, and craftsmen. Established in 1907, the Werkbund was the German fusion of the English Arts Crafts Movement with American industrialism, with the intent of making Germany competitive in an increasingly industrialized world. After World War I (1914-1918), the Werkbund ideals were subsumed into Bauhaus ideals. The word bauhaus is German, basically meaning to build (bauen) a house (haus). Staatliches Bauhaus, as the movement is sometimes called. brings to light that it was in the interest of the state or government of Germany to combine all aspects of architecture into a Gesamtkunstwerk, or complete work of art. For Germans, this was not a new idea- Bavarian stucco masters of theÃ Wessobrunner School in the 17th and 18th centuries also approached building as a total work of art. Bauhaus According to Gropius Walter Gropius believed that all design should be functional as well as aesthetically pleasing. His Bauhaus school pioneered a functional, severely simple architectural style, featuring the elimination of surface decoration and extensive use of glass. Perhaps more importantly, Bauhaus was an integration of the arts- that architecture should be studied along with other arts (e.g., painting) and crafts (e.g., furniture making). His artists statement was set forth in the Manifesto of April 1919: Let us strive for, conceive and create the new building of the future that will unite every discipline, architecture and sculpture and painting, and which will one day rise heavenwards from the million hands of craftsmen as a clear symbol of a new belief to come. The Bauhaus School attracted many artists, including painters Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky, graphic artist Kthe Kollwitz, and expressionist art groups such as Die BrÃ ¼cke and Der Blaue Reiter.Ã Marcel Breuer studied furniture making with Gropius and then led the carpentry workshop at the Bauhaus School in Dessau, Germany.Ã By 1927 Gropius had brought in Swiss architect Hannes Meyer to lead the architecture department. Funded by the German State, the Bauhaus School was always subject to political posturing. By 1925 the institution found more space and stability by relocating fromÃ Weimar toÃ Dessau, the site of the iconic glassÃ Bauhaus Building Gropius designed. By 1928, having directed the school since 1919, Gropius handed in his resignation. British architect and historian Kenneth Frampton suggests this reason: The relative maturity of the institution, the unremitting attacks on himself and the growth of his practice all convinced him that it was time for a change. When Gropius resigned from the Bauhaus School in 1928, Hannes Meyer was appointed Director. A few years later, architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became the director until the schools closing in 1933- and the rise of Adolf Hitler. Walter Gropius opposed the Nazi regime and left Germany secretly in 1934. After several years in England, the German educator began teaching architecture at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. As a Harvard professor, Gropius introduced Bauhaus concepts and design principles- teamwork, craftsmanship, standardization, and prefabrication- to a generation of American architects. In 1938, Gropius designed his own house, now open to the public, in nearby Lincoln, Massachusetts. Between 1938 to 1941, Gropius worked on several houses with Marcel Breuer, who had also immigrated to the United States. They formed the Architects Collaborative in 1945. Among their commissions were theÃ Harvard Graduate Center,(1946), the U.S. Embassy in Athens, and the University of Baghdad. One of Gropiuss later projects, in collaboration with Pietro Belluschi, was the 1963 Pam Am Building (now the Metropolitan Life Building) in New York City, designed in an architectural style dubbed International by American architect Philip Johnson (1906-2005). Ã Gropius died in Boston, Massachusetts on July 5, 1969. He is buried in Brandenburg, Germany. Learn More The Bauhaus, 1919Ã¢â¬â1933, The Metropolitan Museum of ArtA Bauhaus Life: Is Bauhaus Too International for America?The New Architecture and the Bauhaus by Walter Gropius, trans. P. Morton Shand, MIT PressWalter Gropius by Siegfried Giedion, Dover, 1992Gropius by Gilbert Lupfer and Paul Sigel, Taschen Basic Architecture, 2005Gropius: An Illustrated Biography of the Creator of the Bauhaus by Reginald Isaacs, 1992From Bauhaus to Our House by Tom Wolfe, 1981 Sources Kenneth Frampton, Modern Architecture (3rd ed., 1992).Charly Wilderaug, On the Bauhaus Trail in Germany, The New York Times, August 10, 2016.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
International Expansion - Essay Example Using a common standard, which was gold in early times, a nation is wealthier if it possesses more gold. It receives gold for the products it imports and pays for its imports with gold. Therefore, the more it exports over those it imports, the more gold it will possess. The problem with this theory is that it excludes the fact that in some cases it is good to import. And if you completely refuse to import, the population would have to do with some consumer items (Richardson, 2007). In terms of business organizations, this theory was used by many companies in Japan after the second world war, to increase exports. Toyota started operations in the 1930s and was supported by the Japanese government during WWII because of the company's capability to produce trucks for military applications. Because of the scarcity of domestic resources at that time, the Japanese government stopped almost all imports. By 1945, after the allied forces won the war, Toyota was given permission by the US milit ary to start peacetime production. In 1957, Toyota set up a sales office in Hollywood and started selling Toyopets and Land Cruisers (Toyota, n.d.). However, even for Toyota, the purist application of the mercantilist theory was not effective. The design of Japanese cars were not those desired in the new markets they opened up in other countries. Toyota could not force the Americans to buy their Japanese cars, which defeated the purpose of exporting to increase exports versus imports. Instead, what Toyota did was to localize both production and design of its products. By 1967, Toyota had become a well-established automotive company in the United States (Toyota, n.d.). The Theory of Absolute Advantage theorizes that countries should specialize in producing what they are best at (Richardson, 2007). A country has an absolute advantage over another, if it can produce that good using fewer resources than the other (Absolute Advantage, 2008). In the 16th century the Swiss watch and clock industry was very active in Geneva and to this day, the reputation of Swiss watches is the highest worldwide. Geneva itself was already exporting more than 60,000 watches annually by 1790 (Swiss Watch, 2008). Switzerland's expertise in watch making may be considered as an absolute advantage. One of the most successful Swiss watch companies is Omega, founded in 1848 by Loui Brandt. Four years later, Omega was the largest producer of watches in Switzerland with 240,000 units produced annually (Omega, n.d.). "Today, seven out of ten people throughout the world are familiar with the OMEGA watch brand" (Hamel, n.d.). Omega has been applying the absolute advantage theory in its international expansion drives. Its absolute advantage is the reliably fine quality of its watches which has stood the test of time. However, that absolute advantage may be true for Omega as a brand, in general, but may not be applicable on a product to product basis. This is because other Swiss watch companies, and many other watch companies around the world strive to compete with Omega products to make their own brand the alternative choice. The Theory of Comparative Advantage, on the other hand, is an extension of the range of possible mutually beneficial exchanges. The theory says that it is not necessary to have an absolute advantage to gain from trade, only a comparative advantage. As long as one can produce certain goods at a lower cost, even if other
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Define corporate governance and explain why it is used to monitor and control managers strategic decisions - Essay Example Therefore, since the corporate governance encompasses all the management spheres of the company, it forms the vital tool in monitoring and controlling all the strategic decisions of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s managers. From the above definition of the corporate governance, it is clear that it governance both internal and external factors driving the operations of a company. It is usually the responsibility of the entire management to understand and determine how to balance between the external and internal factors affecting a company (Joshi 46); hence, under the umbrella of corporate governance, the management of the company is capable of determining what affects both the external and internal player of the company. For instance, quality of a product will affect the response of the consumers. In this case, the quality of the product is manly affected by laxity of the internal factors but may also be attributed by external factors (suppliers supply poor quality of raw material). However, the whole issue lies with internal quality management that could have detected the quality of the raw material and rejected the same due to poor quality (Fernando 72). Nonetheless, the corporate governance forms a vital management aspect of a company and every aspect of corporate governance must be considered effective to ensure smooth and efficient company
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Haleeb Relaunch Report Essay Current Size, Growth and Profitability: Recently, Haleeb Foods has reached a turnover of Rs. 9. 2 Billion in the year 2009. It was a loss, though, as Haleeb Foods has been experiencing a slump since 2-3 years due to internal management and quality issues. Competition may pose a threat because the company will have to maintain its leadership in an expanding market so that it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t lose its market share to its competitors. For Haleeb it might be difficult to maintain its market hare in a market where the loyalties exist for such brands as Nestle and OlperÃ¢â¬â¢s. These brands have been in the milk industry and have left a mark in the minds of consumers in terms of quality. Competition seems to be getting tougher as a result of new players entering the dairy market. HaleebÃ¢â¬â¢s primary competitors are Nestle milk pack and OlperÃ¢â¬â¢s milk. The Secondary competitors are Nirala, Halla, Good milk and Gourmet milk. Primary Competitors: Prema: Prema milk fresh, pure and nourishing, straight from our own state-of-the-art dairy farms. With the combination of natural vitamins, minerals, and a great creamy taste, Prema milk provides truly natural milk, with all the essential nutrients needed for healthy bodies and bones, including rotein, calcium, riboflavin and vitamin A. As an all purpose milk, Prema milk is perfect for the whole family for drinking, cooking, as well as a tasty tea whitener. Prema has a market share of 20%. OlperÃ¢â¬â¢s: Launched on March 20, 2006, OlperÃ¢â¬â¢s milk is EFLÃ¢â¬â¢s standardized and homogenized pure UHT (Ultra heat treated) milk with 3. 5 % fat and 8. 9 % solid non-fats. It is EFLÃ¢â¬â¢s premier brand, and the choice of quality-conscious consumers who only go for the best. It is available in easy-to-open, 6-layered Tetra Pak Brick Aseptic red packaging and comes with a 3 months shelf life. OlperÃ¢â¬â¢s has a market share of 20%. Nestle Milk Pack: Pure, rich and delicious NESTLE MILKPAK standardized UHT milk benefits from NestleÃ¢â¬â¢s expertise in bringing you the very best life has to offer and benefits from 140 years of consumer trust. It comes in four convenient packages and provides a nutritious value to its consumers by educating them about the advantages of milk. They provide valuable information on the packaging and advertise how Nestle milk provides all the essential nutrients. In another words they keep in track of the changing trends and the change in consumer preferences. The market share for Nestle milk pack is 30%. Secondary Competitors: Nurpur, Nirala, Good milk and Gourmet milk altogether comprise of about 10. 5% of the total market share. SWOT ANALYSIS Strengths: * Ultra-Modern technology: Haleeb Foods is using a high-tech modern UHT plant known as Ã¢â¬Å"Tubular Heat Exchange SystemÃ¢â¬ in which there are closed pipes of hot and cold water which treat the milk at the time. In this process, the milk is first revolved around the hot pipe which raises the temperature to about 140*C to kill bacteria and other germs and then around the cold pipe which lowers the temperature to around 2-3*C. This process gives the milk its natural thickness and taste. Whereas its competitors use Ã¢â¬Å"Heat Injection SystemÃ¢â¬ in which steam is injected into the milk to kill the bacteria and then cooled down The Brand Ã¢â¬Å"HaleebÃ¢â¬ : Haleeb is one of the oldest UHT Milk providers of Pakistan and has developed its name through out the country. Every person, whether it be a child or an adult or an elderly, knows about this name and would prefer buying Haleeb Milk rather than any other new ones. It is using the Ã¢â¬Ëcorporate brand strategyÃ¢â¬â¢ i. e. making use of the corporate image to affect customer purchase decisions. Examples are Haleeb yoghurt, Haleeb butter, Haleeb milk. Here what is important is not only the reputation of the company but also the concept of customer loyalty to the brand. * Owning the color Ã¢â¬Å"BlueÃ¢â¬ : Haleeb from the very beginning has identified and associated itself with the color Blue. Every time a person enters a grocery shop and sees a blue pack on the milk shelf, he/she instantly recalls the brand as Haleeb which gives it a competitive edge over its competitors such as OlperÃ¢â¬â¢s or Ollwell or Nestle. * High Quality Milk: Haleeb has always provided the best quality milk as it claims Ã¢â¬Å"SAB SE GHARA DOODH (THICKEST MILK)Ã¢â¬ . Whenever this statement is either displayed or heard somewhere, it instantly associates itself with Haleeb. * Rigorous Quality controls: Haleeb undertakes 21 rigorous quality control tests on every portion of the milk to ensure it is the best out there. Efficient Research and Development department: Haleeb often conducts researches to find out the requirements of the consumers before and even after the launch of a certain product which helps them in making changes to their products according to the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ preferences. * Diversified Brand Portfolio: Haleeb, over the time period, has diversified itself into many products other than milk such as juices, ghee, butter, cheese, low fat milk, etc which gives it a competitive edge and helps it to grow even further and increases its profitability. Weaknesses: * Marketing (Advertisements): Haleeb seldom advertises its products which is a big weakness as its competitors spend a huge amount on TVCÃ¢â¬â¢s, Radio spots, etc. The only commercial Haleeb use, is for its milk which is quite old fashioned and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t match up with the requirements of the consumers now days. Considering the competitors like OlperÃ¢â¬â¢s and Nestle Milk pack, their TVC,s are seen over and over again during prime times along with bill boards in every heavy traffic street. Awareness of these brands is much more as compared to Haleeb. Packaging: Haleeb, since its beginning, has been using the same packaging which has resulted as a bad sign for the company. Haleeb needs to revamp its packaging keeping consumer wants and perceptions in mind. Over the years customers are accustomed to changes as this is the era of fast transformation and anyone who does not keep up with the times will loose. Therefore Haleeb should step out of its comfort zone and co me up with a new packaging for milk with sharper colors, fancier logos and convenient packs for easy accessible usage. Haleeb is dependent upon Tetra Pak for the packaging of its entire dairy products. Tetra Pak is the only option available to Haleeb for packaging because it is having monopoly in the packaging sector in Pakistan. Due to this reason, Tetra Pak can charge them higher and it could increase the production costs. There is a bargaining power of suppliers. * Demand-Supply Imbalance: The demand for milk is not being completely fulfilled by Haleeb as it is a processor of milk rather than a producer. OPPORTUNITIES: * Increased funding by Government: Government has decided to increase farmersÃ¢â¬â¢ funding. This is an opportunity for Haleeb because previously due to weather conditions and other reasons there was lots of wastage of milk but now that can be reduced as farmers will be better able to store milk for longer time periods. * Awareness: Growing dissatisfaction with loose milk and increasing awareness about health and hygiene issues have led to increased processed milk consumption. People are becoming more health conscious as education is increasing in villages. The population is becoming aware of the diseases associated with loose milk coming from unreliable sources. The increase in knowledge has also created awareness for nutritional value in any content of food or drink. Nestle unlike Haleeb has used this opportunity to provide consumers with an additional proved reason to buy packaged milk. Haleeb should pursue this opportunity. * Third largest producer of milk: Pakistan is the Third largest producer of milk in the world with a total production of 32 billion liter of milk a year, whose value is more than that of the combined value of wheat and cotton, from a total herd size of 50 million milch animals (buffaloes and cows). Livestock accounts for 46. 8 percent of agricultural value added and about 10. 8 percent of the GDP. Milk is the largest commodity from the livestock sector accounting for 51 percent of the total value of the sector. Due to the steps taken by the government and private sector, countryÃ¢â¬â¢s annual milk production is expected to grow at an additional 3 billion liters in the next few years. This is quite an opportunity for ENGRO foods as there is lot of growth in this part of the sector. Threats: * Competition: Competition may pose a threat because the company will have to maintain its leadership in an expanding market so that it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t lose its market share to its competitors. Competition seems to be getting tougher as a result of new players entering the dairy market such as OlperÃ¢â¬â¢s, Ollwell, Gourmet, etc. Competition is a very important threat because in order for you to excel, you have to be well aware of the next move that your opponent will take. The idea is to prevent losing your potential customers as well as those who were loyal to you. Haleeb milk cannot afford to give their loyal customers a reason to prefer another brand.